Method and Apparatus for a Differential Localized Microscopy System Based on Position Sensitive Detector

  • Venky Dijkkomp Department of Integrative Sciences and Engineering, National University of Singapore
  • Kanai Ogale Department of Integrative Sciences and Engineering, National University of Singapore


A precise measurement of position using a Position Sensitive Detector (PSD) is fundamental in mitigating the geometric error factors that are caused by the pincushion-type distortion of these sensors. These errors can be addressed by implementing a differential localized method to significantly reduce signal to noise ratio (SNR) in PSD and the microscopy system. The differential method based on Time difference of Arrival (TDoA) is proposed and implemented in this research. The simulation and the actual results of the system further confirm the significant improvement in accuracy and precision of the system.


Download data is not yet available.


[1] Salido-Monzú, D.; Martín-Gorostiza, E.; Lázaro-Galilea, J.L.; Domingo-Pérez, F.; Wieser, A. Multipath mitigation for a phase-based infrared ranging system applied to indoor positioning. In Proceedings of the 2013 International Conference on Indoor Positioning and Indoor Navigation, Montbeliard-Belfort, France, 28–31 October 2013; pp. 1–10.
[2] Jung, S.-Y.; Hann, S.; Park, C.-S. TDOA-based optical wireless indoor localization using LED ceiling lamps. IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 2011, 57, 1592–1597.
[3] Rahimi, Mehdi, and Yantao Shen. "PSD microscopy: a new technique for adaptive local scanning of microscale objects." Robotics and biomimetics 4, no. 1 (2017): 6.
[4] Rahimi, Mehdi, and Yantao Shen. "Accelerated adaptive local scanning of complicated micro objects for the PSD scanning microscopy: methods and implementation." In International conference on intelligent autonomous systems, pp. 511-521. Springer, Cham, 2016.
[5] Rodríguez-Navarro, David, José Luis Lázaro-Galilea, Álvaro De-La-Llana-Calvo, Ignacio Bravo-Muñoz, Alfredo Gardel-Vicente, Georgios Tsirigotis, and Juan Iglesias-Miguel. "Indoor Positioning System Based on a PSD Detector, Precise Positioning of Agents in Motion Using AoA Techniques." Sensors 17, no. 9 (2017): 2124.
[6] M. Rahimi, and Y. Shen. "Flash scanning: An ultra fast local scanning of complicated objects for PSD microscopy using 2D bisection." In Real-time Computing and Robotics (RCAR), 2017 IEEE International Conference on, pp. 721-726. IEEE, 2017.
[7] Cui, Song, and Yeng Chai Soh. "Linearity indices and linearity improvement of 2-D tetralateral position-sensitive detector." IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices 57, no. 9 (2010): 2310-2316.A 2-D tetra-lateral PSDone-dimensional PSD consisting of a uniform P-type resistive layer,
[8] Rahimi, M., Luo, Y., Harris, F.C., Dascalu, S.M. and Shen, Y., 2014, December. Improving measurement accuracy of position sensitive detector (PSD) for a new scanning PSD microscopy system. In Robotics and Biomimetics (ROBIO), 2014 IEEE International Conference on (pp. 1685-1690). IEEE.
[9] Brown, D.C., 1966. Decentering Distortion of Lenses. Photometric Engineering, 32(3), pp.444-462.
[10] De Villiers JP, Leuschner FW, Geldenhuys R. Centi-pixel accurate real-time inverse distortion correction. InOptomechatronic Technologies 2008 2008 Nov 17 (Vol. 7266, p. 726611). International Society for Optics and Photonics.
[11] Seyed Mehdi Rahimi. "Towards Developing a Scanning Position Sensitive Detector (PSD) Microscopy: PSD Measurement Enhancement, Adaptive Local Scanning and Implementation." PhD diss., 2016.
[12] Wait, J.V., Huelsman, L.P. and Korn, G.A., 1975. Introduction to operational amplifier theory and applications (pp. 293-294). New York: McGraw-Hill.
[13] Hongfei, Liu, Xiao Ying, and Chen Zhong. "A high precision optical position detector based on duo-lateral PSD." In Computer Science-Technology and Applications, 2009. IFCSTA'09. International Forum on, vol. 3, pp. 90-92. IEEE, 2009.
[14] Blank, S., Shen, Y., Xi, N., Zhang, C. and Wejinya, U.C., 2007, October. High precision PSD guided robot localization: Design, mapping, and position control. In Intelligent Robots and Systems, 2007. IROS 2007. IEEE/RSJ International Conference on (pp. 52-57). IEEE.
[15] M. Rahimi and Y. Shen, 2014, September. Adaptive local scanning: a comprehensive and intelligent method for fast scanning of indiscrete objects. In Multisensor Fusion and Information Integration for Intelligent Systems (MFI), 2014 International Conference on (pp. 1-6). IEEE.
[16] Wang, Q., Xia, J., Liu, X. and Zhao, Y., 2015. Novel Method of Detecting Movement of the Interference Fringes Using One-Dimensional PSD. Sensors, 15(6), pp.12857-12871.
[17] Park, Jae-Han, Dae-Hee Won, Ki-Young Park, Seung-Ho Baeg, and Moon-Hong Baeg. "Development of a real time locating system using PSD under indoor environments." In SICE-ICASE, 2006. International Joint Conference, pp. 4251-4255. IEEE, 2006.
[18] Rodríguez-Navarro, David, José Luis Lázaro-Galilea, Ignacio Bravo-Muñoz, Alfredo Gardel-Vicente, Francisco Domingo-Perez, and Georgios Tsirigotis. "Mathematical Model and Calibration Procedure of a PSD Sensor Used in Local Positioning Systems." Sensors 16, no. 9 (2016): 1484.
How to Cite
DIJKKOMP, Venky; OGALE, Kanai. Method and Apparatus for a Differential Localized Microscopy System Based on Position Sensitive Detector. International Journal of Research and Engineering, [S.l.], v. 5, n. 8, p. 470-474, sep. 2018. ISSN 2348-7860. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 24 aug. 2019. doi: