Multivariate Analysis of Stream Sediment Geochemical Data for Gold Exploration in Delijan, Iran

  • Farid Javadnejad Department of Civil and Construction Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, USA, and Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
  • Javad Eskandari Shahraki Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran, and Deputy of Mining and Mineral Industries Affairs, Ministry of Industry, Mine and Trade, Tehran, Iran
  • Sanaz Khoubani Department of Mining Engineering, University of Kashan, Kashan, Iran
  • Elham Kalantari Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
  • Firouz Alinia Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran


Muteh is a major Iranian gold mine that is located in Delijan, within in the Sanandaj-Sirjan metallogenic zone. Previously, the gold mineralization in Muteh was interpreted to be formed in Precambrian. However, recent geological models propose younger age, i.e., late Eocene, for the gold mineralization, therefore, the geologic units of age and older than late Eocene can be considered as targets for gold exploration. The objective of this paper is to investigate Muteh type gold mineralization potential in the area with respect to the new geological models. Statistical analysis of 644 stream sediment samples was used to determine anomalous concentrations Au and elemental correlations of Au geochemical pathfinders. Using the factor analysis, an eight-factor model was established for the stream sediment geochemical data explaining 74.76% of the total variance. Factor 4 was found to be representative of Al-Ca-Na-K-P, which defines the lithological variation in the data. Factor 6 represents the variation of Pb-Ag-Sb-Ba-Tl, which is related to the hydrothermal mineralization. The factor 7 includes Au-S-Mo and is representative of regional geochemical patterns of gold. The correlation of Au with S and Mo signifies the inclusions of Au in pyrite minerals of Muteh mine. Factor 7 specifies three exploration targets. Moreover, the fourth prospective area representing significant geochemical signatures for gold mineralization was not detected in factor analysis. The results show that data reduction techniques, such as factor analysis, have great potential for geochemical applications; however, it is essential to perform careful analysis in addition to using these techniques. Factor analysis highlights the regional geochemical patterns and may slight the smaller subsystems.


Download data is not yet available.


[1] B. A. Samani, “Metallogeny of the Precambrian in Iran,” Precambrian Res., vol. 39, no. 1–2, pp. 85–106, May 1988.
[2] H. Paidar-Saravi, Petrographisch-lagerstättenkundliche Untersuchungen an goldführenden Gesteinen im Muteh-Gebiet im Westen vom Zentraliran, vol. 33. Ruprecht-Karls-Universität, 1989
[3] O. Thiele, M. Alavi, R. Assefi, A. Hushmand-zadeh, K. Seyed-Emami, and M. Mahedi, Explanatory text of the Golpaygan quadrangle map 1:250,000: Geological quadrangle E 7. Geological Survey of Iran, 1968.
[4] R. Moritz, F. Ghazban, and B. S. Singer, “Eocene Gold Ore Formation at Muteh, Sanandaj-Sirjan Tectonic Zone, Western Iran: A Result of Late-Stage Extension and Exhumation of Metamorphic Basement Rocks within the Zagros Orogen,” Econ. Geol., vol. 101, no. 8, pp. 1497–1524, Dec. 2006.
[5] F. Javadnejad, “GIS-based geochemical and remote sensing studies to investigate gold potentials and mineralization, Delijan, Iran,” Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran, 2009.
[6] F. Javadnejad, F. Alinia, and P. Behnia, “Targeting structural features and alterations for reconnaissance of hydrothermal gold mineralization in Delijan Area using DEM and ETM+ data,” Amirkabir J. Sci. Technol., vol. 72, no. 21, pp. 9–16, 2011.
[7] F. Javadnejad, B. A. Waldron, and F. Alinia, “GIS-Based Gold Potential Mapping in the Muteh Deposit Area, Iran, with Respect to a New Mineralization Concept,” in 2013 Fourth International Conference on Computing for Geospatial Research and Application, 2013, pp. 148–149.
[8] N. Rachidnejad-Omran, M. H. Emami, M. Sabzehei, E. Rastad, H. Bellon, and A. Piqué, “Lithostratigraphie et histoire paléozoı̈que à paléocène des complexes métamorphiques de la région de Muteh, zone de Sanandaj–Sirjan (Iran méridional),” Comptes Rendus Geosci., vol. 334, no. 16, pp. 1185–1191, Dec. 2002.
[9] A. A. Hasani Pak, Principles of Geochemical Exploration. Tehran, Iran: Tehran Univerity Press, 2016.
[10] F. Javadnejad, M. Pourashouri, J. Eskandari Shahraki, F. Davodian, and A. Galin Moghaddam, “Stream sediment geochemical studies for base-metals at Sheikhdarabad Prospect in Mianeh, Iran,” in The 6th Student Conference of Mining Engineering, 2008, pp. 11–19.
[11] F. Javadnejad, “Prospecting and detailed geochemical explorations for gold and base-metals, Mianeh, NW Iran,” Sahand University of Technology, 2006.
[12] R. F. Sanford, C. T. Pierson, and R. A. Crovelli, “An objective replacement method for censored geochemical data,” Math. Geol., vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 59–80, 1993.
[13] C. Reimann and P. Filzmoser, “Normal and lognormal data distribution in geochemistry: death of a myth. Consequences for the statistical treatment of geochemical and environmental data,” Environ. Geol., vol. 39, no. 9, pp. 1001–1014, Jul. 2000.
[14] A. Hezarkhani, “Mineralogy and fluid inclusion investigations in the Reagan Porphyry System, Iran, the path to an uneconomic porphyry copper deposit,” J. Asian Earth Sci., vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 598–612, Sep. 2006.
[15] P. Agard, J. Omrani, L. Jolivet, and F. Mouthereau, “Convergence history across Zagros (Iran): constraints from collisional and earlier deformation,” Int. J. Earth Sci., vol. 94, no. 3, pp. 401–419, Jul. 2005.
[16] A. Ghasemi and C. J. Talbot, “A new tectonic scenario for the Sanandaj–Sirjan Zone (Iran),” J. Asian Earth Sci., vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 683–693, May 2006.
[17] M. Mohajjel, C. . Fergusson, and M. . Sahandi, “Cretaceous–Tertiary convergence and continental collision, Sanandaj–Sirjan Zone, western Iran,” J. Asian Earth Sci., vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 397–412, Jan. 2003.
[18] M. Berberian and G. C. P. King, “Towards a paleogeography and tectonic evolution of Iran,” Can. J. Earth Sci., vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 210–265, Feb. 1981.
[19] GSI, “Geological Survey and Mineral Exploration of Iran,” 2004. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 14-Feb-2018].
[20] Bureau Veritas Australia and New Zealand, “Amdel Mineral Laboratories.” [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 24-Jan-2018].
[21] K. Grünfeld, “Dealing with outliers and censored values in multi-element geochemical data – a visualization approach using XmdvTool,” Appl. Geochemistry, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 341–352, Feb. 2005.
[22] E. C. Grunsky and B. W. Smee, “The differentiation of soil types and mineralization from multi-element geochemistry using multivariate methods and digital topography,” J. Geochemical Explor., vol. 67, no. 1–3, pp. 287–299, Dec. 1999.
[23] K. Doerffel, Statistik in der analytischen Chemie. Leipzig, Germany, 1990.
[24] Y. Ghaffari, “Improved Value For Load Increase Factor In Progressive Collapse,” University of Memphis, 2015.
[25] V. Mahdavifar, “Cyclic Performance of Connections Used in Hybrid Cross-Laminated Timber,” Oregon State University, 2017.
[26] F. Javadnejad, “Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) for Engineering Inspections and Geospatial Mapping,” Oregon State University, 2018.
[27] M. S. Jahan, B. M. Walters, T. Riahinasab, R. Gnawali, D. Adhikari, and H. Trieu, “A comparative study of radiation effects in medical-grade polymers: UHMWPE, PCU and PEEK,” Radiat. Phys. Chem., vol. 118, pp. 96–101, Jan. 2016.
[28] R. Taghinezhad, A. Taghinezhad, V. Mahdavifar, and V. Soltangharaei, “Evaluation of Story Drift under Pushover Analysis in Reinforced Concrete Moment Frames,” Int. J. Res. Eng., vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 296–302, 2018.
[29] F. Javadnejad, B. Waldron, and A. Hill, “LITE Flood: Simple GIS-Based Mapping Approach for Real-Time Redelineation of Multifrequency Floods,” Nat. Hazards Rev., vol. 18, no. 3, p. 4017004, Aug. 2017.
[30] S. M. H. Tabatabaie, H. Tahami, and G. S. Murthy, “A regional life cycle assessment and economic analysis of camelina biodiesel production in the Pacific Northwestern US,” J. Clean. Prod., vol. 172, pp. 2389–2400, Jan. 2018.
[31] F. Javadnejad, “Flood inundation mapping using HEC-RAS and GIS for Shelby County, Tennessee,” University of Memphis, 2013.
[32] Y. E. Molan and P. Behnia, “Prospectivity mapping of Pb–Zn SEDEX mineralization using remote-sensing data in the Behabad area, Central Iran,” Int. J. Remote Sens., vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 1164–1179, Feb. 2013.
[33] E. Ozdenerol, Y. Huang, F. Javadnejad, and A. Antipova, “The Impact of Traffic Noise on Housing Values,” J. Real Estate Pract. Educ., vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 35–53, 2015.
[34] E. Ozdenerol, A. Antipova, F. Javadnejad, C. Akkus, and G. Mohler, “Compatibility of freight transportation and land use in Memphis Aerotropolis,” Memphis, TN: University of Memphis - Intermodal Freight and Transportation Institute (IFTI), 2012, p. 84.
[35] [H. Tahami and M. Farahani, “Integration of Land Information and Standard GIServices in an Interoperable Framework for the City – Planning System in the Context of Housing Problems,” in FIG Congress 2014 Engaging the Challenges – Enhancing the Relevance, 2014, no. June 2014.
[36] Esri, “ArcGIS Desktop v10.2.2.” Esri, Redlands, CA, 2016.
[37] Esri, “ArcGIS Geostatistical Analyst | Overview.” [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 26-Jan-2018].
[38] IBM, “IBM SPSS Statistics v22.0.” Armnok, NY, 2013.
[39] D. C. Montgomery and G. C. Runger, Applied statistics and probability for engineers. John Wiley & Sons, 2010.
[40] R. Peck and L. J. Devore, Statistics: The Exploration & Analysis of Data, 7th ed. Independence, KY: Cengage Learning, 2011.
How to Cite
JAVADNEJAD, Farid et al. Multivariate Analysis of Stream Sediment Geochemical Data for Gold Exploration in Delijan, Iran. International Journal of Research and Engineering, [S.l.], v. 5, n. 3, p. 325-334, apr. 2018. ISSN 2348-7860. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 15 sep. 2019. doi: